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[内外兼具]兼具相反含义的英文词汇

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英文中某些单词同时具备相反的意思,通常称为auto-antonym、autantonym、contranym、contronym、 antagonym、Janus word、enantiodrome或self-antonym。以下列举常见例子。

    Apology:
      An admission of error accompanied by a plea for forgiveness: He wrote a letter of apology to the hostess
      A formal defense or justification (as in Plato"s Apology), also referred to as an apologia: The consequence of those measures will be the best apology for my conduct
      Buckle:
        To secure, tighten, hold: Buckle the lock onto the door
        To collapse: His knees buckled
        Cleave:
          To adhere: Cleave to one"s principles
          To split: Cleave a path through the ice
          Clip:
            To clasp or fasten with a clip: Clip the papers together
            To cut or cut off: Clipped three seconds off the record
            Cool:
              Pleasant, agreeable, happy: He has a cool sports car
              Polite but strained, less than agreeable: A cool greeting
              Critical:
                Vital to success: A critical element of the plan
                Disparaging: A critical attitude
                Custom:
                  Conventional behavior: My custom of reading a little before sleep
                  Specially designed: A custom tailor
                  Discursive:
                    Rambling, free-form (American): A discursive speech about this and that
                    Strictly structured (British): A discursive mind
                    Disposed:
                      Removed, gotten rid of: A despot who disposed of all his enemies, real or imagined
                      Available: Disposed to take risks
                      Dollop:
                        Large amount: A dollop of ice cream
                        Small amount: A dollop of whiskey
                        Dust:
                          To remove dust from: Dust the furniture
                          To put dust on: Dusted the cookies with sugarEither:
                            One or the other of two: Which movie do you want to see? Either will be fine
                            The one and the other: Rings on either hand
                            Eventual:
                              Inevitable: His eventual failure
                              Possible, contingent (archaic): Warned of eventual consequences
                              Fast:
                                To move or do quickly: Running fast
                                To not move: Stuck fast
                                Fix:
                                  To mend: Fixed a broken machine
                                  To break (slang): That"ll fix him good
                                  Flank:
                                    To protect the sides of something
                                    To attack the flanksFor:
                                      To cause: A tranquilizer is used for relaxation. To alleviate: Aspirin is used for painGarnish:
                                        To add to (food): Garnished the potatoes with parsley
                                        To take from (wage): His employer garnished his wages in order to pay his debt
                                        Grade:
                                          Inclined: The road has a steep grade
                                          Level: The base of the tower was below grade
                                          Generally:sometimes ambiguous
                                            Usually true, but also subject to exception: The child generally has little to say
                                            All-inclusive, without exception (e.g. in mathematics)
                                            Handicap:
                                              Advantage (e.g. in sports): The experience gave him the handicap over me
                                              Disadvantage/disability: Hearing handicap
                                              Hardly:
                                                Barely: I could hardly hear the speaker
                                                With extreme power: Her voice fell hardly on our ears
                                                Hew:
                                                  To stick: Hew to the line
                                                  To separate: Hew an oak
                                                  If not:ambiguous
                                                    Though not: Attractive if not pretty Even: Attractive if not beautifulImpassionate:
                                                      Strongly affected
                                                      Without passion or feelingLease:
                                                        To lend: We leased our apartment to friends when we were abroad
                                                        To borrow: Let"s lease a car
                                                        Left:
                                                          To have gone: He has left
                                                          Remaining: The left-over food
                                                          Literally:
                                                            Actually, not figuratively: There are people in the world who literally do not know how to boil water
                                                            Virtually, not literal: They had literally no help from the government on the project
                                                            Livid:
                                                              Discolored, dull blue: A face livid with shock
                                                              Reddish, flushed: Willful stupidity makes him absolutely livid
                                                              Lurid:
                                                                Pale, bland: Moonlight gave the statue a lurid luminence
                                                                Vividly descriptive: A lurid account of the crime
                                                                Momentarily:
                                                                  For a brief moment (British): We paused momentarily before proceeding
                                                                  Soon (American): The manager is on another line, but she will be with you momentarily
                                                                  Off:
                                                                    Not operating: The light is off
                                                                    To start operating: An alarm goes offOriginal:
                                                                      New and freshly conceived: Original ideas
                                                                      Ancient, staid and preserved: The original inhabitants of the Americas
                                                                      Out:
                                                                        To remove: The lights are out To exhibit prominently: The stars are outOutstanding:
                                                                          Exceptional, excellent, prominent: Did outstanding work in human relations
                                                                          Unsettled, unresolved, overdue: Outstanding debts
                                                                          Oversight:
                                                                            Noun form of oversee: in charge of
                                                                            Noun form of overlook: errorPeruse:
                                                                              To glance at, to skim over (a common mistake in usage): I only had a moment to peruse the manual quickly
                                                                              To examine closely (by definition): The librarians checked to see which titles had been perused in the last month and which been left untouched
                                                                              Pitch:
                                                                                Discard: Pitched the can out the window
                                                                                Promote: Showed up on local TV to pitch their views
                                                                                Pitted:(fruit)
                                                                                  With pit(果核) Without pitPresently:
                                                                                    Immediately (old meaning)
                                                                                    In a while (present meaning): She will arrive presently
                                                                                    Protest:
                                                                                      To speak for: To protest peace To speak against: To protest the warQualified:
                                                                                        Limited: Qualified success Skilled, skillful: A qualified expertRent:
                                                                                          Paying to use something: I"m renting an apartment Taking money to let someone else to use something: We rent cars to anyoneReservation:
                                                                                            A confirmation of availability A fear or uncertaintyResign:
                                                                                              Re-sign, to commit to continuing:Resign oneself to work Relieve oneself of commitment: To resign from workSanction: 词根本意是holy,后引申为law、decree。
                                                                                                To allow, encourage: He may seem ready to sanction the use of force
                                                                                                To punish so as to deter: Failure to sanction countries for butchering whalesSanctimony:
                                                                                                  Holiness, sanctity or religiousness Pretended, affected, hypocritical holinessScan:
                                                                                                    To examine closely (old meaning): The surgeon scanned the X-ray
                                                                                                    To look over hastily (contemporary meaning): Scanned the newspaper while eating breakfast
                                                                                                    Screen:
                                                                                                      To conceal with or as if with a screen: Weatherbeater screens your roof from the rain
                                                                                                      To display prominently: Screening a filmSeed:
                                                                                                        To add seeds: Seeding a field To remove seeds: Seeding a fruitSeveral:
                                                                                                          Separate, single, individual: The several states (old meaning) More than two, pluralShelled:
                                                                                                            To remove a shell: We shelled the hazelnuts To have a shell: Turtles are like shelled snakes with legsShow-stopper:
                                                                                                              Something that is strikingly attractive A bug that makes an implementation unusable (computer industry)Sinople:
                                                                                                                Green RedSkin:
                                                                                                                  To add skin: To skin the kayak To remove skin: To skin the deerStakeholder:
                                                                                                                    To hold a stake but not have interest in (old meaning) To have an interest in an issue (corporate governance)Stay:
                                                                                                                      To stop an action: To stay the execution To continue an action: To stay the courseSuspicious:
                                                                                                                        Acting in a way that suggests wrong-doing: He seems very suspicious Suspecting wrong-doing in others: He was suspicious of her motivesTable:
                                                                                                                          To raise an issue for discussion: To table a bill for consideration by a legislative body
                                                                                                                          To lay aside an issue and discontinue discussion: Let"s table the exam
                                                                                                                          Temper:
                                                                                                                            To soften or mollify: Temper its doctrinaire logic with a little practical wisdom
                                                                                                                            To strengthen (e.g. a metal): Soldiers who had been tempered by combat
                                                                                                                            Trim:
                                                                                                                              To cut something away: Trimmed his moustache
                                                                                                                              To add something as an ornament: Trim a shop windowTrip:
                                                                                                                                To move effortlessly and fluidly: The tripped along without a care in the world
                                                                                                                                To fall as a result of colliding with an obstacle: She tripped over the tree root
                                                                                                                                Trying:
                                                                                                                                  Hard to endure: He"s really a trying child
                                                                                                                                  To make an effort: I"m trying to finish the project
                                                                                                                                  Unitize:
                                                                                                                                    To form or combine into one unit: Unitize a car body
                                                                                                                                    To divide or separate into multiple units: The hospital was unitized for efficiency
                                                                                                                                    Weather:
                                                                                                                                      To endure: To weather the elements
                                                                                                                                      To erode, decay: A weathered old hut

参考资料:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auto-antonym
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_auto-antonyms_in_English

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