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【tol什么意思】Tol教你看懂英语报刊

来源:写作 时间:2019-05-15 点击:

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英文报刊是英语爱好者首选的学习材料之一。但是英文报刊的语言有其特色,初学者很容易因为其语言结构特殊,词形非常等原因看不懂英文报纸,从而丧失学习的兴趣。下面Tol老师结合英文报刊的标题,介绍英文报刊在用词上的一些特点,希望对那些想完全看懂英文报刊的英语学习者一些帮助。

一、小词Midget Words

报刊是“快速文学”(literature in a hurry),英文报刊的语言总体来讲是结构简单但是表现力极强的。由于记者和编辑的时间紧迫,加之版面有限,小词在报刊中非常受到青睐。

名词:

aide—assistant  aim—purpose  drive—campaign talk—negotiation blast--explosion  body—committee clash—controversy crash—collision deal—transaction demos—democrats fake—counterfeit  ok—approval pact--treaty  probe—investigation  pullout—withdrawal stance—attitude step—progress   ties—relations  chief—commander  job—mission

动词

ask—inquire axe—reduce ban--prohibit bar--prevent bid—attempt drop—abandon boost--increase check--examine curb—control ease--lessen end--terminate map--formulate mark—celebrate name—nominate opt—choose plot—conspire raid—attack sway--influence  vie--compete  vow--determine  cut—abridge  nuke—nuclear weapon

比如:

Bush Begins to Woo Democrats

To Back His Social Security Plan

(The Wall Street Journal 4/2 2005)

布什着手为社保方案寻求民主党支持

Ex-aide to Blair says the British spied on Annan (The New York Times 27/2 2004)

布莱尔前助手: 安南曾被英间谍监视

二、缩写Abbreviation

1. 节略词Clipped Words

节略词指单词的某一部分(可前可后,以可中间)被省略,但是意思和不变。它的好处可以说是不言而喻了。

grad—graduate hosp—hospital cig—cigarette  champ—champion  con—convict deli—delicatessen expo—exposition homo—homosexual pro—professional  nat’l—national  com"l—commercial    tech—technology    vet—veteran  stats—statistics

比如:

Overseas co-ops to get boost (The Auckland Star 18/1 1992)

政府将加强海外合作

(co-ops = co-operation)

Six charged in child porn ring (Albuquerque Journal 9/2 2004)

儿童色情犯罪团伙的6名成员被指控

(porn = pornography)

Migration raises bird-flu worries (The Wall Street Journal 2/2 2004)

候鸟迁徙让人们对禽流感忧心忡忡

 (flu=influenza)

2.词首字母缩写Acronyms

这种缩写方式只取单词的第一个字母,构成一个新词,多用于组织和特有名词。

ASEAN--Association of Southeast Asian Nations IAEA--International Atomic Energy Agency

SUV—Sports Utility Vehicle                 PM--Prime Minister

GM--General Manager                    TP—Traffic Policeman

PA--personal Assistant                    UN—United Nations

比如:

U.N. officials discuss early Iraq elections (Albuquerque Journal 9/2 2004)

伊拉克大选在即

联合国官员加紧讨论

(UN=United Nations)

Rally calls for more black MPs (The Vancouver Sun 2/2 1992)

民众游行-呼吁增加黑人议员

(MPs= members of parliament)

PC, fax sales expected to soar (The Asian Wall Street Journal 10/1 1992)

个人电脑和传真机销量看涨

(PC= personal computer)

值得注意的是有时候一种缩写可以被理解为不同的意思。比如

GM 可被理解为 “General Manager” 或 “General Motors”; SEC 可被认为是“Security Exchange Commission” or “Secretary”. 遇到这种情况的话只有具体情况具体分析了。

比如:

Siemens ungags talking SMS (The Register 9/3 2005)

西门子发布语音短信手机

SMS is the abbreviation of “Short Message Service”, i.e. “短信” in Chinese.

Lucky for SMS, team is calmer than the coach (St. Louis Today 7/3 2005)

幸运属于西南密苏里州立大学

队员比教练更冷静

Ex-CEO charged in Enron scandal (USA Today 20-22/2 2004)

涉嫌丑闻的前安然CEO 受到指控

CEO, standing for Chief Executive Officer, has been widely accepted by average readers. 

NBA Game Summary --Boston at Charlotte (Fall River Herald News 15/3 2005)

NBA赛事综述之

“波士顿” 作客 “夏洛特”

3.新词Neologisms

新词是指随着社会的发展,新生事物的诞生,而被人们创造出来的词。通常新词首次出现在媒体,随后深入民心,被广泛使用。

1)老词新用Old Words with New Sense

这种词本身并不新,但是已经被赋予新的含义或者时代特点。

dove—a person who advocates peace or negotiation in preference to confrontation or conflict.

hawk—a person who favors military force or action in order to carry out foreign policy.

mafia-- an alleged international criminal organization

elephant—American Republican Party

donkey—American Democratic Party

watchdog—a person who serves as a guardian against waste, loss, or illegal practices

a big gun—a very important or influential person

比如:

Gay-marriage foes mobilize

Group asks state court to stop same-sex unions (The Modesto Bee 26/ 2 2004)

反同性恋婚姻团体游行

要求州法院取缔同性联盟

(gay =homosexual, 同性恋)

Ground Zero rebuilding plans revealed (China Daily 17/7 2002)

世贸遗址重建计划公之于众

2)新闻造词Journalistic Coinages

smog = smoke + fog        newscast = news + broadcast   sitcom = situation + comedy                  Atobomb = atom + bomb   politburo = political + bureau  Euromart = European + market    Reaganomics = Reagan’s economics  stagflation = stagnation + inflation

比如:

Grain sale expected to fall at Euromart (The Wall Street Journal 2/11 1991)

欧洲市场谷物销量预计下跌

(欧洲市场=Euro欧洲+mart市场)

Governator Arnold Schwarzenegger (China Daily 18/11 2003)

“终结者”当州长

斯瓦辛格今日走马上任

3)外来词Transferred Words

这一类词起源于其他语言。要想看懂必须查资料了解其背后的文化含义。

de facto—in fact (Latin)                     

encore--A demand by an audience for an additional performance (French)

blitz --intense campaign (German)

autopista—fast lane on highway (Spanish)           

incognito-- one whose identity is disguised or concealed (Italian)

kibbutz—a collective farm or settlement in modern Israel (Hebraic)

比如:更多信息请访问:http://www.24en.com/

The Second World War was anther huge Volkerwanderung

二战是又一次大规模“民族迁移”

The new face of kibbutz volunteers (Jerusalem Post 15/3 2005)

农场自愿工作者的新面貌

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